Food science and technology

Section „Science and technology of food of plant origin”

GRAPE SEEDS – NATURAL WINERY BY-PRODUCT. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND STORAGE REGIME.
ГРОЗДОВИ СЕМКИ - ЕСТЕСТВЕН ОТПАДЪЧЕН ПРОДУКТ ПРИ ВИНОПРОИЗВОДСТВОТО. ФИЗИКОХИМИЧНИ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ И СЪХРАНЕНИЕ.
Abstract: Grape seeds, a natural waste product in wine production, were a rich source of bioactive compounds. Its beneficial effect on the human organism has paved the way for discovering new directions in the development of the food industry. The objectives of this study was to determine the physicochemical parameters of moisture content, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and ash content of grape seeds – a post-fermentation by-product in winemaking. We also optimized the conditions of the storage regime – temperature of 25 °C and relative humidity 75 %. The grape seeds were packaged in co-extruded barrier film with copolymer covering for heat sealing to be used in the food industry. During the three-month storage, we were determined contents and microbial viability of pathogenic organisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp.) and apparent molding of the product under study was analyzed. Key words: grape seeds, bioactive products, winery by-products, natural by-product, physicochemical parameters.
Автори: доц. д-р инж. Албена Дуракова, инж. Аделина Богоева, доц. д-р инж. Величка Янакиева

Coeffiicient of diffusion of tannins in extracts from laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis L.)
Коефициенти на дифузия на дъбилни вещества в екстракти от листа на лавър (Laurus nobilis L.)
The coefficient of diffusion (D) of tannins, obtained through extraction of laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis L.) with 30, 50, 70 and 95 % ethanol has been determined. The highest value of the D was calculated for extraction with 50 % and 70 % ethanol and temperature 60 °C, respectively.
Автори: Галина Л. Стефанов, Станислава Ц. Ташева, Станка Т. Дамянова, Албена С. Стоянова

EFFECT OF SELECTED TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PURPLE CAULIFLOWER
Ефект на избрани технологични процеси върху антиоксидантната активност на лилав карфиол
Various technological treatments such as cooking, pre-processing (washing, peeling, grinding) and storage may lead to significant falls in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of processing (blanching, cooking in the water and also 2- and 5-months period of frozen storage), to changes in antioxidant activity of purple cauliflower - Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L. (Graffiti cv.). Antioxidant activity were determined based on free radical quenching capacity of ABTS ˙+. All technological processes applied the effect of statistically significant (p≤0.05) lowering the antioxidant activity. This study showed impact of cooking metod and frozen storage on the antioxidant activity.
Автори: Joanna Kapusta-Duch, Teresa Leszczyńska, Barbara Borczak

EFFECT OF SELECTED TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES ON VITAMIN C CONTENT OF PURPLE CAULIFLOWER
Ефект на избрани технологични процеси върху съдържанието на витамин „С“ на лилав карфиол
Of all vegetables consumed in Europe and all over the world, Brassica vegetables are regarded as the most important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of processing (blanching, cooking in the water and also 2- and 5-months period of frozen storage), to changes in vitamin C content of purple cauliflower - Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L. (Graffiti cv.). Vitamin C content was detected as the sum of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by the use of 2,6-dichlorophenoloindophenol in accordance with PN-A-04019:1998. Extraction of the ascorbic acid was performed using oxalic acid solution.All technological processes applied the effect of statistically significant (p≤0.05) lowering vitamin C content.
Автори: Joanna Kapusta-Duch, Teresa Leszczyńska, Barbara Borczak

Resistant starch chances in potatoe gels with non-starchy polysaccharide hyrocoloides
Промени в резистентността на картофени гелове с ненишестени полизахаридни хидроколоиди
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the selected non-starchy polysaccharide hydrocolloids (NPH) on the development of resistant starch in the gels of potato starches of different amylose content upon cooled storage for 90 days. The samples had varied amylose content – the materials were two normal potato starches (NPS1 as well as NPS2) and waxy potato starch (WPS). Each sample contained 5% (w/w) of the starch and either 0 or 0.20 % (w/w) of: (i) xanhtan gum (XG); (ii) guar gum (GG) or (iii) gum arabic (GA). Among all starches, the most susceptible to RS creation was WPS, which was characterized by the lowest amylose content at the same time. This project was financed from the funds provided by the National Science Centre of Poland awarded on the basis of decision number UMO-2013/11/B/NZ9/01951.
Автори: Barbara Borczak, Anna Dobosz, Marek Sikora, Magdalena Krystyjan, Piotr Tomasik, Hanna Maria Baranowska

Investigation of process characteristics during ultrafiltration of whey from kashkaval
Изследване на процесните характеристики при ултрафилтрация на суроватка от Кашкавал
UF10-PAN membrane was used to investigate the process characteristics during ultrafiltration of whey from Kashkaval production. Dry matter, protein and mineral substances contents were analyzed and retention and concentration factors were calculated. The results show that two investigated factors according to the dry matter and proteins increase, while according to the mineral substances they remain approximately constant.
Автори: Siyka D. Kozludzhova, Mariya A. Dushkova, Kolyo T. Dinkov, Milena P. Miteva-Petrova, Stoyko P. Petrov, Nikolay D. Menkov

Optimization of technological parameters for osmotic dehydration of black chokeberry
Оптимизиране на технологичните параметри за осмотична дехидратация на плодове от черна арония
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of temperature of osmotic treatment (from 43 to 77°C), concentration of osmotic solution (from 47 to 63°Brix) and fruit to solution ratio (from 1:2 to 1:6 /w:w/) on the mass transfer (water loss, solid gain) and antioxidant activity during osmotic dehydration of black chokeberry. It was found that the temperature of osmotic treatment and concentration of osmotic solution (linear and quadratic effect) were the most significant factors affecting water loss (WL), followed by fruit to solution ratio. For solid gain (SG), the effect of temperature and concentration of osmotic solution were found to be more significant factors. The temperature of the osmotic treatment and fruit : solution ratio (linear and quadratic effect) had the highest impact on total anthocyanin content (TAC). The increasing temperature resulted in higher losses of antioxidant activity. The osmotic dehydration process was optimized for WL, SG, and TAC. The optimum process parameters obtained by computer generated response surfaces analysis and contour plot interpretation were as follows: concentration on osmotic solution - 60°Brix, temperature of osmotic treatment - 50°C, and fruit to solution ratio 1:4.
Автори: Sv. Aleksandrov, Iv. Bakalov, T. Petrova, M. Ruskova, V. Gotcheva, Hr. Hristov, N. Penov

The use of enzyme preparations to improve the baking properties of flour
Използване на ензимнипрепарати за увеличаване на хлебопекарните свойства на брашното
Основната причина за лошото качество на брашното е отклонението в ензимния комплекс и състоянието на биополимерите заради ниските агротехническически условия, поразяването от вредителите на зърнените култури, неблагоприятните условия за съхранение. За да се подобри процесът и качеството на хляба, е необходимо да се използват различни подобрители. В статията са представени изследвания върху стабилизиране на качеството на брашното с ниска амилолитична активност (ЧП – 426 с.) и силен глутен (качество на глутена, измерен с инструмента ИДГ – 40 усл. стандартни единици). Като подобрители са използвани ензимни препарати с амилазна и хемицелулазна активност, както и съдържаща сяра аминокиселина цистеин. Според лабораторните резултатите от пробното печене е установено влиянието на всеки подобрител върху хлебопекарните свойства на брашното. Използването на комплекс от такива подобрители за хляб позволява да се повиши ефективността на всеки компонент въз основа на тяхното синергично действие. Най-добър резултат за качеството на хляба показа комплексът от подобрители в средни дози, подобриха се органолептичните и физичните характеристики на хляба, специфичен обем на хляба се увеличи от 2,4 до 4,3см3/г, т.е. с 1,8 пъти
Автори: Одеска национална академия по хранителни технологии

Determination of use of fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graceum L.) as food and some morphological characteristics
Determination of use of fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graceum L.) as food and some morphological characteristics
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of the Fabaceae family. Fenugreek is widely grown in India, China, Africa, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Egypt, Turkey, Ukraine, Spain, and Italy. This plant is used in the food industry such as soft drinks, sweets, sausage making, seasoning products and used in mixtures of sugared sauces. In addition, ground seeds are consumed in the form of pickles, soup, sauces and meat products, food industry, bakery products, and ice cream, caramel and in the composition of cheese flavor additives, fresh leaves as salad and vegetables and roasted seeds as coffee. The most common use of spice is fenugreek paste; it can be consumed as it is this mixture which is composed of fenugreek herb, cayenne pepper and garlic, or more importantly it is used as covering material of pastrami. This study was conducted to determine the optimal sowing period of Trigonella foenum-graceum L. in Yozgat ecological conditions, to investigate the effect of spring and autumn sowing on yield and yield components of fenugreek during 2014-2015 vegetation period. According to results of this research; plant height 46.58 cm, 32.42 cm; the number of pods per plant 16.73 number, 6.65 number; the number of seeds per pod 9.75 number, 5.27 number; thousand seed weight 30.17 g, 24.72 g; seed yield 310.93 kg/da, 154.23 kg/da; biological yield 819.92 kg/da, 791.31 kg/da and oil yield 14.45 kg/da, 6.61 kg/da were recorded in autumn and spring sowing, respectively.
Автори: Belgin COSGE SENKAL, Kursat BUCAK, Hulya DOGAN, Cuneyt CESUR, Tansu USKUTOGLU

A study on the effect of mineral substances and lactic acid starter cultures on the properties of bread of wheat flour type 500
Изследване влиянието на минерални вещества и млечнокисели закваски върху свойствата на хляб от пшенично брашно тип 500
The deficiency of minerals in the body and the health consequences it generates is a problem that affects a significant part of the world\'s population. It has been found that nutrition does not provide sufficient amounts of important macro- and microelements, such as zinc and selenium. The enrichment of different food products with biologically active substances is a suitable approach to overcome the deficiency. High bread consumption is a traditional national characteristic of nutrition in Bulgaria.Thus, bread enrichment with mineral substances is a very good approach to achieving adequate intake levels. On the other hand, the inclusion of lactic acid starter cultures in bread is a common practice. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of mineral substances (zinc sulphate heptahydrate and sodium selenite pentahydrate) and lactic acid starter cultures on the properties of semi-finished products and the quality of bread of wheat flour type 500. It has been established that the use of additives leads to more intensive acidification and lowering the pH values of the bread dough and bread. The increase in volume of the enriched samples during the fermentation proces is up to 3.7 times higher than that of the control sample. The addition of mineral salts and lactic acid starter cultures results to a higher and more uniform porosity (about 5.2% higher than the control sample). At the same time, the fortified bread has better form resistance and improved appearance. The experimental results prove the possibility of obtaining bread of wheat flour type 500 with increased biological value and improved quality.
Автори: Denka Zlateva, Dana Stefanova

Possibilities of Usage of Oilcakes from Non-traditional Oil Plants for Development of Health-friendly Functional Food Products
Possibilities of Usage of Oilcakes from Non-traditional Oil Plants for Development of Health-friendly Functional Food Products
The objective of this study was to investigate the possibilities of usage of oilcakes from non- conventional oil plants for the development of new food products and assessment their quality and nutritional properties. For this purpose the standard methods were used to determine and compare the nutritional value of non-traditional oilseed cakes, analyzed the possibilities of their use for development of new confectionery products. During experimental tests, the bread samples were developed and made enriched with 2.5%, 5% chia (salvia hispanica) oilcake flour and also the donuts enriched with 2 to 8% citrus fibers Citri – Fi and with 8% chia oilcake flour.The physico-chemical quality, organoleptic properties of oilcakes and new products were determined by standard methods. Nutritional value of new products was calculated using Excel program. It was found that oilcakes from non-traditional oilseeds contain up to 50 % protein and up to 35 % fiber. The amount of fat in the oilcake depends on the selected oil pressure technology. Chia oilcake is rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Laboratory tests showed that the bread with 2.5% chia oilcake addition was distinguished by the best technological and organoleptic characteristics. The use of chia oilcake in the production of yeast donuts reduced the loss of fritting fat and the amount of fat in the donuts was lower by about 40% than the amount of fat in the control sample. Chia oilcakes have the same technological properties as citrus fibers Citri-Fi.
Автори: Kristina Montrimaitė, Elena Mosčenkova

Improving plants
Improving plants
The improvement of plants through selection and crossbreeding is a basic view of the development of modern agriculture. Improving plant happened again with the earliest domestication. Developments in the last century in the field of cross-plant combined with those in agriculture, plant physiology, molecular biology and genetics have contributed to the technical achievements that led to unprecedented advances in yield in all major plants. Scientists estimate that about half of the benefits the yield of the crop are a result of genetic improvement. The selection of plants is an important part of successful farming in the United States. The research of plants and plant provided collecting genetic material that is used to create improved species for agricultural and horticultural use. The importance of this work was recognized at the end of the 19th century.
Автори: Zhivko Jankuloski

Section „Science and technology of food of animal origin”

Production and consumption of Lamb in Kosovo
Производство и консумация на агнешко месо в Косово
Abstract The meat and the meat products are an important source of nutritive elements necessary for the functioning of the human body. The nutritive value of the meat depends on its type, the age, the sex and the anatomic region of the meat origin etc. The human being uses conventional and unconventional types of meat in the nutrition. Out of the conventional types of meat in the World the poultry, pork, beef, lamb etc. are produced and consumed the most. The lamb in the past was more consumed and as a result the production was greater. But lately, not only the lamb consumption has decreased but also the number of sheep has decreased here and in the neighboring countries as well. Numerous factors have role in the decrease of the number of sheep like the decreased consumption, the production extensiveness and the lack of human labor in the sheep farming, among the more important ones. Thus, the number of sheep in Kosovo is permanently decreased. So according to the statistical data in the 60s, the number of sheep in Kosovo was 600.000 and in the 80s – around 420.000; and today this number is around 180.000 as a result of the decreased number of sheep, the lamb production is lowered as well: in 2014 the lamb production amounted to 2.750 tons and the lamb consumption per capita amounted to 1.4 kg. Key words: nutritive elements, consumption, conventional
Автори: Xhelal Luma1*, Mitre Stojanovski1, Hajrip Mehmeti2

Recovery and characterization of polyphenol-enriched extracts intended for application in functional dairy products
Получаване и характеризиране на обогатени на полифеноли екстракти за функционални млечни продукти
Polyphenol-enriched extracts from industrial plant by-products (strawberry, apple and bilberry press residues and distilled rose petals) were obtained by adsorption technology. In addition to the contents of total polyphenols and total monomeric anthocyanins, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated using DPPH- and FRAP-assay.
Автори: Милена Димитрова, Галин Иванов, Кирил Михалев, Радка Власева

Fatty acid composition of breast meat in two lines of slow-growing chickens reared conventionally or on pasture
Мастнокиселинен състав на месо от гърди при две линии бавно растящи пилета, отглеждани при конвенционална система или на паша
The study was carried in two trials to compare the fatty acid composition of breast meat in two lines of slow growing chickens - La Belle (LB) and Bresse (BB) reared conventionally or having access to pasture. At the age of 12 weeks, 6 male chickens of each line and rearing systems were selected for slaughter. Two-way ANOVA was performed to assess the differences in the lipid profile due to lines and rearing strategies. Both factors affected the lipid composition in the breast meat, however access to pasture influenced to a greater extent the fatty acids. Its effect was positive and associated with lower contents of C14:0 and C16:0 (P<0.001), C16:1Δ7 (P<0.001), C18:1 (P<0.05), total saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.01). Significant increase (P<0.001) was observed in the contents of the long chain individual and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the birds on pasture. These changes in the fatty acid profile of the breast meat of the chickens reared outdoors led to significant improvement of its dietetic quality having lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices, reduced n-6/ n-3 ratio (P<0.001), as well as higher P/S and h/H values (P<0.001). In addition to the rearing system, differences in the fatty acid composition of breast meat were due to the line of the birds, showing advantage of the LB over BB chickens. The former had lower contents of SFA (P<0.001) but higher long chain PUFA (P<0.05) which determined better nutritional indices of the breast meat in LB line.
Автори: Тeodora Popova, Evgeni Petkov, Maya Ignatova

Quality characteristics of meat in a hybrid lines chicks pullets
Качествени характеристики на месото при някой хибридни линии пилета
The paper presents the results of the examination of the involvement of internal organs in the body weight of the bones from the core parts of the trunk and the participation of meat in the basic body parts of the hybrids Isa Brown and Hibrid Dekalb (g) and (%). To this end, 7 chicken chicks were taken from the hybrid lines Isa Brown Dekalb. The first was the weighing of each chicken - the beard separately. After the slaughter and primary processing of the hybrids, we carried out the weights of all the internal organs from the beans, then separated the meat from the bones and separately weighed the meat and bones of the hybrid lines. The highest participation in the mass of the trunk from the internal organs of the fruits belongs to the intestine which in the hybrid Isa Brown accounts for 7.19% then the stomach 4.30%, the liver 2.05%.And in the hybrid Dekalb of the intestine it accounts for 9.77% of the total body mass of the stomach in the stomach of 3.66%. Liver 2.67%. In the Isa Brown hybrid, the head in the total body weight participates with 5.62% of the legs with 4.54%, the neck with 2.94%. And with the Dekalb hybrid in the total mass of the trunk, the head participates with 6.53%, the legs with 3.99%, the neck with 2.80%. The bones of the hybrid Isa Brown's hybrid in the total mass of the hoofs account for 23.61%, the bones of the wings with 44.36% and the bones of the breast with 27.40%. In the hybrid Dekalb, the share of bone from the hoof in the mass of the hoof is 25.63%, wings from wings 44.76%, and bones from the chest 16.02%. With the Isa Brown hybrid compared to the Dekalb hybrid, the share of meat in the mass of the hoof is higher (63.07%). . While the Dekalb Hybrid, the share of meat in the mass of wings and chests is greater (29.74, 71.63). Compared to the Isa Brown hybrid. From the obtained results we can conclude that the percentage participation of the internal organs in the total mass of the carcase is more present in Dekalb. Compared to Issa B
Автори: Sanja Filipovska, Aco Kuzelov

Clarification of the microstructural changes in sheep m. Longissimus dorsi during aging ‎depending on biochemical and physicochemical amendments
Установяване на микроструктурните промени в m. Longissimus dorsi от овце по време на зреене повлияни от биохимичните и физикохимични промени
The objective of this study was to clarify the microstructural changes in sheep m. Longissimus dorsi during ripening, and to try to explain them in light of biochemical and physicochemical amendments of meat. Changes in microstructure, proteolysis, colour, water holding capacity, and pH of sheep m. ‎Longissimus dorsi stored at 0-4ºC for 5 days were determined. Shortening of the sarcomeres and ‎typical alternation of light and dark bands was established after 48 hours storage at 0-4ºC. ‎Simultaneously, pH and water holding capacity decreased with 16.5% and 50.6% resp. (p > ‎‎0.05), accompanied by the lowest protein solubility, and a disappearance of myosin heavy ‎chains. On the 3 day post mortem sarcomeres were partly regenerated and their native structure ‎was recovered. A- and I-disks was visible, Z-lines was undamaged. The transmission electron ‎micrographs on the 4 d post mortem showed large gap formation in sarcomeres and A- and I-‎disks were difficulty recognizable. On the 5 day the pH and water holding capacity was not ‎statistically different (p > 0.05) from the initial values but free amino nitrogen decreased with ‎‎34.5% (p ≤ 0.05).‎ Keywords: sheep, microstructure, SDS-Page, soluble proteins, water holding capacity
Автори: D.Vlahova-Vangelova, S. Dragoev, D. Balev, K. Uzakov, M.‎ Kojahieva

Effect of electrochemically activated anolyte onthe shelf life of cold stored rainbow trout
Влияние на електрохимически активиран анолит върху срока на съхранение на охладена дъгова пъстърва
The aim of the study was, to determine the possibilities for extending the shelf life and freshness of rainbow trout ‎stored at 0 - 4°C using electrochemical active anolyte (ECA) treatment. The sensory, physicochemical and ‎microbiological properties of ECA and flake ice chilled rainbow trout (Oncorcynchus mykiss) packed in low-density ‎polyethylene/polyamide bags were studied during 20 days at 0 - 4°C. The fish treated with ECA was assessed as ‎satisfactory fresh to 15 d of storage. On this day, their sensory scores of the state of the eyes were higher (p* < ‎‎0.05) with 27.78%, skin appearance with 22.22% and taste of grilled trout with 18.75% resp. in comparison with flack ‎ice chilled fish. After 20 days of storage the ECA treated rainbow trout characterized by 4.38% lower pH, 20.00% ‎lower free fatty acids, 9.22 % lower peroxide value, 17.65% lower TBARS, 5.85% lower free α-amino nitrogen, ‎‎19.66% lower total volatile based-nitrogen, 4.28% lower total viable counts on the skin and 2.90 % in the muscle ‎tissue, and 2.82% lower psychrotrophic count on the skin and 2.86% in the muscle tissue. The conclusion was made ‎that the chilling of the rainbow trout with ECA could contribute to prolong the shelf life by maintaining satisfactory ‎sensory and physicochemical properties to the 15th day at 0 - 4°C. ‎Keywords: fresh fish, sensory and physicochemical properties, microbiological state, ECA ‎chilling, cold storage
Автори: Vladimir Kitanovski, Dessislava Vlahova-Vangelova, Stefan Dragoev, Hristo Nikolov, ‎Dessislav Balev‎

EFFECTS OF GOJI BERRIES ON A QUALITATIVE PROPERTIES OF SEMI DURABLE SAUSAGE
Влияние на годжи бери върху качествените характеристики на полутраен колбас
Effect Of Goji Beries on a Qualitative properties of Semi Durable Sausages Aco Mitev1*, Aco Kuzelov2, 1 Student at second cycle studies at the Faculty of Agriculture University Goce Delchev Stip 2 Faculty of Agriculture University Goce Delchev Stip *Corresponding author:Aco Mitev Student at second cycle studies at the Faculty of Agriculture University Goce Delchev Strit Krste Misirkov bb 10-A Stip R. Macedonia aco.mitev@hotmail.com Running title:Qualitative properties, Semi Durable Sausages Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dry milled berries on gypsum berry on the oxidative changes (acidic degree, peroxide number) and the microbiological status of a semiprecious frost sausage kept at a temperature of 4 ° C. For that purpose, four groups of Sausages. First group without the addition of dried berries of goji berry (control group), second group of sausages with addition of 0.1% goji beri, third group with addition of 0.3% goji beri and fourth group with addition of 0.5% goji beri. 1, 10, 25 and 35 days from the production of sausage. The acidity level in all groups of sausage examined is increasing, with the highest increase in the control group of sausages (2.08,2.19,2.39,2.65).. The peroxide number from the 1st to the 35th day (during the storage of sausages at a temperature of +4 ° C) increases. The highest increase in control groups (1.02, 0.40, 1.04, 0.71) and the smallest in group IV (0.76, 0.47, 1.09, 0.74). Regarding the microbiological status of sausage groups, examinations were carried out on 1, 10 25 and 35 days from the production for the presence of: Listeria monocytogenes Salmonela species; Escerihia col Staphylococcus aureus, number of aerobic bacteria. In all investigated groups, the presence on the top Mentioned bacteria. Only a number of aerobic bacteria has been identified . In none of the analyzed sausage groups, the total number of bacteria did not exceed the recommended
Автори: Student of the second cycle of Tudi of Agricultural Engineering University GoceDelchevStip

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF PATES
Химическа композиция, мигробиологичен статус и сензорни особености на различни типове пастети
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF PATES Darko Andronikov1, Kiro Mojsov1, Aco Janevski1, Aco Kuzelov2, Elenica Sofijanova3, Dijana Indzhelieva4 1Faculty of Tehnology, University, „Goce Delčev“, Štip, Republic of Macedonia 2Faculty of Agriculture, University „Goce Delčev“, Štip, Republic of Macedonia 3Faculty of Economics, University „Goce Delčev“, Štip, Republic of Macedonia 4University “Prof. dr. A. Zlatarov”, College of Tourism, Prof. Yakimov, Burgas, Republic of Bulgaria darko.andronikov@ugd.edu.mk Abstract The aim of our research was to investigate the chemical and microbiological composition as well as the sensory properties of different types of pates. Three groups of five samples for pig and beef test and vegetable pâté, measured after heat treatment, were used for the test. The results of the chemical composition showed that the content of proteins, fats and minerals was the smallest in swine pates (14.56 ± 0.72; 25.04 ± 0.56; 1.58 ± 0.17). Water content was the highest in swine pates (57.76 ± 0.25) and the smallest in beet pates (55.26 ± 0.34). None of the studied groups of pates showed the presence of Clostridia, Escherichia Coli, Salmonella and Listeria Monocytogenes. The highest total number of bacteria was found in beef pâtés (4.16 log CFU / g) and the lowest in pig pests (3.79 log CFU / g). The lowest sensory marks were obtained by swine patches, and the highest samples of the pate with vegetables. From the results of the sensory evaluation it can be seen that the differences in the sensory properties of the groups and between the groups of pates are small and statistically insignificant. This is probably due to the standardization of the preparation and uniformity of the raw materials used for pest production.
Автори: University „Goce Delčev“, Štip, Republic of Macedonia

The impact of different starter cultures on pH and SH dynamics during the storage of three variants probiotic yogurt
The impact of different starter cultures on pH and SH dynamics during the storage of three variants probiotic yogurt
Fermented dairy products, also known as cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented by using lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc). Fermented dairy products are described as a potential cure for different digestive disorders. The popularity of these products is growing, not only because of its organoleptic properties, but also because of its nutritional value and health benefits. Probiotic yogurt is a dairy product obtained by milk fermentation process, by adding a probiotic starter culture. The aim of this survey was to follow the pH and SH values during the storage period of probiotic yogurt manufactured from three different starter cultures with the following commercial names: ABT-6, ABT-750 and ABT-10 consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidus
Автори: Makarijoski Borche, Stefche Presilski, Sasho Trajchevski, Biljana Trajkovska

The effect of different starter cultures on sensory properties of probiotic yogurt
The effect of different starter cultures on sensory properties of probiotic yogurt
Fermented dairy products have been an important component of nutritional diet. Probiotic yoghurt is one of the most popular fermented milk product prepared by using probiotic starter cultures. This product is considered as a probiotic food that can deliver significant amounts of probiotic bacteria into the body which can claim specific health benefits once ingested. The aim of this survey was to follow the effect of different probiotic cultures on the sensory properties of the probiotic yogurt which was manufactured from three different starter cultures with the following commercial names: ABT-6, ABT-750 and ABT-10 consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidus
Автори: Stefche Presilski, Makarijoski Borche, Sasho Trajchevski

Section „Science and technology of beverages”

Dynamics of the fermentation process of a lactic acid beverage based on wort and mint with Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus Oly
Динамика на ферментационния процес за получаване на млечно кисела напитка на основа пивна мъст и мента с Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus Oly
The dynamics of the fermentation process of lactic acid beverages based on wort and mint with L. casei ssp. rhamnosus Oly was investigated. The fermentation was carried out at 15 ° C for 7 days. The wort was obtained from barley malt by infusion method. The mint was added before fermentation at three doses 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g/L. It was found that during the fermentation process, the viable cell concentration increased from 107 CFU/cm3 to 1013 CFU/cm3, the pH value decreased from 6.0 to 3.7, the radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay) decreased, but the ferric reducing antioxidant pawer (FRAP assay) didn’t change. The strain Oly was adopted and functioned well in wort medium. The addition of mint didn’t inhibit growth and vaibility of L.casei ssp. rhamnosus Oly.
Автори: Maria Kaneva

Section „Food, nutrition and dietetics”

Proximate composition of wheat cookies with the selected wild grown fruits
Химичен състав на бисквити обогатени с подбрани диворастящи плодове
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected wild-grown fruits on the chemical composition of wheat - flour cookies. Research material consisted of four kinds of wheat cookies without (control biscuits) and with 5% addition of lyophilized fruits: (1) hawthorn; (2) sea buckthorn; (3) rowan. The amounts of dry matter, proteins, fats, ash and dietary fibre of wheat flour cookies were determined by AOAC methods [2006]. The nutritional value of cookies enriched with the selected wild – grown fruits was modified. Key words: cookies, wild- grown fruits, chemical composition. This study has been carried out with financial support from Agricultural University in Krakow. Grant no. BM – 4735/KŻCz/17.
Автори: Borczak B., Sikora E., Sikora M., Kapusta – Duch J.,Kutyła-Kupidura E.M.

Effect of germination on the nutritional, functional, anti-nutritional and morphological characteristic of kidney bean
Effect of germination on the nutritional, functional, anti-nutritional and morphological characteristic of kidney bean
Legumes are the important and primary source of energy in vegan human diet for long time. They are also the important source of vegetarian protein in daily diet for millions of people in the world. However contribution of nutrition to the consumer is limited due to poor digestibility and anti-nutritional factors etc. But the practices like soaking, germination, fermentation and cooking before consumption or product formation affect anti-nutritional factors significantly, which in turn increase their digestibility and biological value of food. Of all these treatments germination and cooking decrease anti-nutritional factors significantly and increase bioavailability of nutrients, whereas germination was the most effective and simpler method in improving nutritional aspect of cereal and legumes. In present study effect of germination on kidney bean was observed. Germination enhances the nutritional attributes of kidney bean. Total nitrogen content increased during germination whereas carbohydrate content decreased. Increase in the nitrogen content led to increase the nutritional index as a result of increase in indispensable amino acids.
Автори: Mandeep Singh Sibian, Charanjit Singh Riar, Dharmesh Chandra Saxena